Time-frequency impact of human well-being and economic growth on the ecological footprint: A new insight from the Vietnamese perspective (early view)
Main Article Content
The nexus between natural resources and environmental degradation has significant implications. Nevertheless, this domain is insufficiently examined, and multiple results are evident in the literature. Significant human well-being, rapid urbanization, and economic growth have increased the extraction and consumption of natural resources in Vietnam. As a result, this paper examines the time-frequency influence of economic growth, human development, and urbanization on Vietnam's ecological footprint using wavelet analysis. The findings show that the intercorrelation between the ecological footprint and related variables is statistically significant at low, medium, and high frequencies. More importantly, the relationships between these variables occur at a high frequency, which means that EF, GDP, HDI, and UB have different fluctuations in the long run. These outcomes are also confirmed by the wavelet-based Granger causality test at various time scales, which supports our relationship results.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.