The relationship between mindfulness and social entrepreneurial intention with perceived behavioral control as mediator

Main Article Content

Anh Bui Ngoc Tuan
Loan Van Thi Hong
Minh Pham

Abstract

Nowadays, governments face a conflict between economic development and addressing social needs, especially in developing countries. Social enterprises have been shown to help them solve this problem. However, universities, which have educated social entrepreneurs, are focusing their attention on corporate social responsibility, while the research on social entrepreneurship has yet to receive adequate attention. The purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between mindfulness and social entrepreneurial intention and the intermediary role of perceived controllability and self-efficacy for giving ideas to universities to make appropriate policies for the development of new social entrepreneur generations. This study used structural equation modelling (SEM) to test the research hypotheses. There were 294 students at all levels (bachelor, master or, PhD) of universities in southern Vietnam who participated in this study. The data was collected between August 2019 and October 2019 by using questionnaires. The results have shown that there is a positive relationship between mindfulness and social entrepreneurial intention (SEI). Besides, students' perceived controllability and self-efficacy can enhance this relationship, especially self-efficacy.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Anh Bui Ngoc Tuan, Loan Van Thi Hong, & Minh Pham. (2022). The relationship between mindfulness and social entrepreneurial intention with perceived behavioral control as mediator. Asian Academy of Management Journal. Retrieved from https://ejournal.usm.my/aamj/article/view/591
Section
Early Views - June 2023

References

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179–211. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T

Ajzen, I. (2002). Perceived behavioral control, self?efficacy, locus of control, and the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32(4), 665–683. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559- 1816.2002.tb00236.x

Alferaih, A. (2017). Weight-and meta-analysis of empirical literature on entrepreneurship: Towards a conceptualization of entrepreneurial intention and behaviour. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 18(3), 195–209. https://doi.org/10.1177/1465750317722114

Alvord, S. H., Brown, L. D., & Letts, C. W. (2004). Social entrepreneurship and societal transformation: An exploratory study. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 40(3), 260–282. https://doi.org/10.1177/0021886304266847

Anderson, R. B., Dana, L. P., & Dana, T. E. (2006). Indigenous land rights, entrepreneurship, and economic development in Canada: “Opting-in” to the global economy. Journal of World Business, 41(1), 45–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwb.2005.10.005

Armitage, C. J., & Conner, M. (1999a). Distinguishing perceptions of control from self?efficacy: Predicting consumption of a low?fat diet using the theory of planned behavior 1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29(1), 72–90.

Armitage, C. J., & Conner, M. (1999b). The theory of planned behaviour: Assessment of predictive validity and'perceived control. British Journal of Social Psychology, 38(1), 35–54.

Armitage, C. J., & Conner, M. (2001). Efficacy of the theory of planned behaviour: A meta?analytic review. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40(4), 471–499. https://doi.org/10.1348/014466601164939

Astin, J. A. (1997). Stress reduction through mindfulness meditation: Effects on psychological symptomatology, sense of control, and spiritual experiences. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 66(2), 97–106. https://doi.org/10.1159/000289116

Austin, J., Stevenson, H., & Wei?Skillern, J. (2006). Social and commercial entrepreneurship: same, different, or both?. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30(1), 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540- 6520.2006.00107.x

Bacq, S., & Alt, E. (2018). Feeling capable and valued: A prosocial perspective on the link between empathy and social entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 33(3), 333–350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2018.01.004

Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13(1), 27–45. https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191105283504

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: Freeman.

Baum, J. R., Frese, M., & Baron, R. A. (2014). Born to be an entrepreneur? Revisiting the personality approach to entrepreneurship. In The psychology of entrepreneurship (pp. 73-98). Psychology Press. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315750989

Bargsted, M., Picon, M., Salazar, A., & Rojas, Y. (2013). Psychosocial characterization of social entrepreneurs: A comparative study. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 4(3), 331–346. https://doi.org/10.1080/19420676.2013.820780

Bird, B. (1988). Implementing entrepreneurial ideas: The case for intention. Academy of Management Review, 13(3), 442–453. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1988.4306970

Borzaga, C., & Defourny, J. (2001). The emergence of social enterprise. London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203164679

Bosch, D. (2015). What is social entrepreneurship? In R. A. Danielson (Ed.), The social entrepreneur: The business of changing the world (pp. 1–13). The Office of Faith, Work, and Economics, Asbury Theological Seminary, Wilmore, Kentucky: Seedbed Publishing, Franklin, Tennessee.

Bosma, N., Schøtt, T., Terjesen, S. A., & Kew, P. (2016). Global entrepreneurship monitor 2015 to 2016: Special topic report on social entrepreneurship. Available at SSRN 2786949. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2786949

Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822–848. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.84.4.822

Brown, K. W., Ryan, R. M., & Creswell, J. D. (2007). Mindfulness: Theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects. Psychological Inquiry, 18(4), 211–237. https://doi.org/10.1080/10478400701598298

Caliendo, M., Fossen, F., & Kritikos, A. S. (2014). Personality characteristics and the decisions to become and stay self-employed. Small Business Economics, 42(4), 787–814. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-013- 9514-8

Capel, C. (2014). Mindfulness, indigenous knowledge, indigenous innovations and entrepreneurship. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, 16(1), 63–83. https://doi.org/10.1108/JRME-10-2013-0031

Caplan, L. J., & Schooler, C. (2003). The roles of fatalism, self-confidence, and intellectual resources in the disablement process in older adults. Psychology and Aging, 18(3), 551–561. https://doi.org/10.1037/0882- 7974.18.3.551

Chin, W. W. (1998). The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling. Modern Methods for Business Research, 295(2), 295–336.

Conner, M., & Armitage, C. J. (1998). Extending the theory of planned behavior: A review and avenues for further research. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28(15), 1429–1464. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1998.tb01685.x

Dane, E. (2011). Paying attention to mindfulness and its effects on task performance in the workplace. Journal of Management, 37(4), 997–1018. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206310367948

Dane, E. (2018). Where is my mind? Theorizing mind wandering and its performance-related consequences in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 43(2), 179–197. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2015.0196

Dane, E., & Brummel, B. J. (2014). Examining workplace mindfulness and its relations to job performance and turnover intention. Human Relations, 67(1), 105–128. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726713487753

De Sousa-Filho, J. M., Matos, S., da Silva Trajano, S., & de Souza Lessa, B. (2020). Determinants of social entrepreneurial intentions in a developing country context. Journal of Business Venturing Insights, 14, e00207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbvi.2020.e00207

Dees, J. G. (1998). The meaning of social entrepreneurship. Comments and suggestions contributed from the Social Entrepreneurship Founders Working Group. Durham, NC: Center for the Advancement of Social Entrepreneurship, Fuqua School of Business, Duke University. Available at http://faculty.fuqua.duke.edu/centers/case/files/Dees-SE.pdf.

Dees, J. G. (2007). Taking social entrepreneurship seriously. Society, 44(3), 24–31. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02819936

Del Giudice, M., Garcia-Perez, A., Scuotto, V., & Orlando, B. (2019). Are social enterprises technological innovative? A quantitative analysis on social entrepreneurs in emerging countries. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 148, 119704. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2019.07.010

Falk, R. F., & Miller, N. B. (1992). A primer for soft modeling. University of Akron Press.

Feldman, G., Hayes, A., Kumar, S., Greeson, J., & Laurenceau, J. P. (2007). Mindfulness and emotion regulation: The development and initial validation of the Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised (CAMS- R). Journal of psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 29(3), 177-190.

Fitzsimmons, J. R., & Douglas, E. J. (2011). Interaction between feasibility and desirability in the formation of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of business venturing, 26(4), 431-440.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research, 18(1), 39-50.

Forster, F., & Grichnik, D. (2013). Social entrepreneurial intention formation of corporate volunteers. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 4(2), 153-181.

Frese, M., & Gielnik, M. M. (2014). The psychology of entrepreneurship. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 1(1), 413–438.

García-Morales, V. J., Martín-Rojas, R., & Garde-Sánchez, R. (2020). How to encourage social entrepreneurship action? using web 2.0 technologies in higher education institutions. Journal of business ethics, 161(2), 329-350.

Good, D. J., Lyddy, C. J., Glomb, T. M., Bono, J. E., Brown, K. W., Duffy, M. K., ... & Lazar, S. W. (2016).

Contemplating mindfulness at work: An integrative review. Journal of management, 42(1), 114-142.

Götz, O., Liehr-Gobbers, K., & Krafft, M. (2010). Evaluation of structural equation models using the partial least squares (PLS) approach. In Handbook of partial least squares (pp. 691-711). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Greason, P. B., & Cashwell, C. S. (2009). Mindfulness and counseling self?efficacy: The mediating role of attention and empathy. Counselor Education and Supervision, 49(1), 2-19.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis, 7th edition, Prentice Hall.

Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2016). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage publications.

Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed a silver bullet. Journal of Marketing theory and Practice, 19(2), 139-152.

Hair, J. F., Risher, J. J., Sarstedt, M., & Ringle, C. M. (2019). When to use and how to report the results of PLS- SEM. European Business Review, 31(1), 2-24.

Hair, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., & Mena, J. A. (2012). An assessment of the use of partial least squares structural equation modeling in marketing research. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 40(3), 414-433.

Hockerts, K. (2017). Determinants of social entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 41(1), 105-130.

Howell, A. J., & Buro, K. (2011). Relations among mindfulness, achievement-related self-regulation, and achievement emotions. Journal of Happiness Studies, 12(6), 1007-1022.

Hyland, P. K., Lee, R. A., & Mills, M. J. (2015). Mindfulness at work: A new approach to improving individual and organizational performance. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 8(4), 576-602.

Iakovleva, T., & Kolvereid, L. (2009). An integrated model of entrepreneurial intentions. International Journal of Business and Globalisation, 3(1), 66-80.

Igwe, A., Ogbo, A., Agbaeze, E., Abugu, J., Ezenwakwelu, C., & Okwo, H. (2020). Self-efficacy and subjective norms as moderators in the networking competence–social entrepreneurial intentions link. SAGE Open, 10(3), 1–16.

Jiao, H. (2011). A conceptual model for social entrepreneurship directed toward social impact on society. Social Enterprise Journal, 7(2), 130-149.

Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness. New York, NY: Delacorte Press.

Kaplan, D. (2008). Structural equation modeling: Foundations and extensions (Vol. 10). Sage Publications.

Kelly, L., & Dorian, M. (2017). Doing well and good: an exploration of the role of mindfulness in the entrepreneurial opportunity recognition and evaluation process. New England Journal of Entrepreneurship, 20(2), 25-35.

Kim, J. E. (2019). The impact of creative role identity and creative self-efficacy on employee creativity in the hotel business. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business, 6(2), 123-133.

Kolvereid, L. (1996). Prediction of employment status choice intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and practice, 21(1), 47-58.

Krueger, N. F. (1993). The impact of prior entrepreneurial exposure on perceptions of new venture feasibility and desirability. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 18(1), 5-21.

Krueger, N. F. (2007). The cognitive infrastructure of opportunity emergence. In Entrepreneurship (pp. 185- 206). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Krueger Jr, N. F., & Brazeal, D. V. (1994). Entrepreneurial potential and potential entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 18(3), 91-104.

Krueger Jr, N. F., Reilly, M. D., & Carsrud, A. L. (2000). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of business venturing, 15(5-6), 411-432.

Kruse, P., Wach, D., Costa, S., & Moriano, J. A. (2019). Values matter, don’t they?–Combining theory of planned behavior and personal values as predictors of social entrepreneurial intention. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 10(1), 55–83.

Kruse, P., Wach, D., & Wegge, J. (2020). What motivates social entrepreneurs? A meta-analysis on predictors of the intention to found a social enterprise. Journal of Small Business Management, 59(3), 477-508.

Langer, E. J. (1989). Minding matters: The consequences of mindlessness–mindfulness. In Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 22, pp. 137-173). Academic Press.

Leadbeater, C. (1997). The rise of the social entrepreneur (No. 25). Demos.

Liñán, F., & Chen, Y. W. (2009). Development and cross–cultural application of a specific instrument to measure entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(3), 593-617.

Litwin, M. S. (1995). How to measure survey reliability and validity (Vol. 7). Sage. Lleras, C. (2005). Path analysis. Encyclopedia of social measurement, 3, 25-30.

Luc, P. T. (2020). The influence of personality traits on social entrepreneurial intention among owners of civil society organisations in Vietnam. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 40(3), 291-308.

Mair, J., & Noboa, E. (2006). Social entrepreneurship: How intentions to create a social venture are formed. In Social entrepreneurship (pp. 121-135). Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Manstead, A. S., & Van Eekelen, S. A. (1998). Distinguishing between perceived behavioral control and self? efficacy in the domain of academic achievement intentions and behaviors. Journal of applied social psychology, 28(15), 1375-1392.

Martínez-López, E., Zagalaz Sanchez, M., Ramos Alvarez, M., & de la Torre Cruz, M. (2010). Self-efficacy expectations in teacher trainees and the perceived role of schools and their physical education department in the educational treatment of overweight students. European Physical Education Review, 16(3), 251- 266.

Mathias, B. D., Williams, D. W., & Smith, A. R. (2015). Entrepreneurial inception: The role of imprinting in entrepreneurial action. Journal of Business Venturing, 30(1), 11-28.

McGee, J. E., Peterson, M., Mueller, S. L., & Sequeira, J. M. (2009). Entrepreneurial self?efficacy: refining the measure. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(4), 965-988.

McMullen, J. S., & Bergman, B. J. (2017). social entrepreneurship and the development paradox of prosocial motivation: a cautionary tale. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 11(3), 243–270.

Miller, T. L., Grimes, M. G., McMullen, J. S., & Vogus, T. J. (2012). Venturing for others with heart and head: How compassion encourages social entrepreneurship. Academy of management review, 37(4), 616-640.

Moss, T. W., Short, J. C., Payne, G. T., & Lumpkin, G. T. (2011). Dual identities in social ventures: An exploratory study. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 35(4), 805–830.

Muñoz, P., & Kimmitt, J. (2019). Social mission as competitive advantage: A configurational analysis of the strategic conditions of social entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Research, 101, 854-861.

Nga, J. K. H., & Shamuganathan, G. (2010). The influence of personality traits and demographic factors on social entrepreneurship start up intentions. Journal of Business Ethics, 95(2), 259–282.

Pertl, M., Hevey, D., Thomas, K., Craig, A., Ní Chuinneagáin, S., & Maher, L. (2010). Differential effects of self-efficacy and perceived control on intention to perform skin cancer-related health behaviours. Health education research, 25(5), 769-779.

Patrick, R. B., Bodine, A. J., Gibbs, J. C., & Basinger, K. S. (2018). What accounts for prosocial behavior? Roles of moral identity, moral judgment, and self-efficacy beliefs. Journal of genetic psychology, 179(5), 231- 245.

Pihie, Z. A. L., & Bagheri, A. (2013). Self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intention: The mediation effect of self- regulation. Vocations and Learning, 6(3), 385-401.

Prieto, C. (2014). From flexicurity to social employment regimes. In Deconstructing Flexicurity and Developing Alternative Approaches (pp. 59-79). Routledge.

Rambe, P., & Ndofirepi, T. M. (2019). Explaining social entrepreneurial intentions among college students in Zimbabwe. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 10, 1–22.

Ratten, V. (2018). Social entrepreneurship through digital communication in farming. World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 14(1), 99–110.

Rauch, A., & Frese, M. (2007). Let's put the person back into entrepreneurship research: A meta-analysis on the relationship between business owners' personality traits, business creation, and success. European Journal of work and organizational psychology, 16(4), 353-385.

Rerup, C. (2005). Learning from past experience: Footnotes on mindfulness and habitual entrepreneurship. Scandinavian journal of management, 21(4), 451-472.

Rey-Martí, A., Ribeiro-Soriano, D., & Palacios-Marqués, D. (2016). A bibliometric analysis of social entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Research, 69(5), 1651-1655.

Sarstedt, M., Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., Thiele, K. O., & Gudergan, S. P. (2016). Estimation issues with PLS and CBSEM: Where the bias lies!. Journal of Business Research, 69(10), 3998-4010.

Schlaegel, C., & Koenig, M. (2014). Determinants of entrepreneurial intent: a meta?analytic test and integration of competing models. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 38(2), 291-332.

Seelos, C., & Mair, J. (2005). Social entrepreneurship: Creating new business models to serve the poor. Business Horizons, 48(3), 241-246.

Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of management review, 25(1), 217-226.

Shapero, A., & Sokol, L. (1982). The social dimensions of entrepreneurship. Encyclopedia of entrepreneurship, 72-90.

Sharahiley, S. M. (2020). Examining entrepreneurial intention of the Saudi Arabia’s university students: Analyzing alternative integrated research model of TPB and EEM. Global Journal of Flexible Systems Management, 21(1), 67-84.

Shaw, E., & Carter, S. (2007). Social entrepreneurship. Journal of small business and enterprise development, 14(3), 418-434.

Shier, M. L., & Van-Du, B. (2018). Framing curriculum development in social work education about social enterprises: a scoping literature review. Social Work Education, 37(8), 995-1014.

Short, J. C., Moss, T. W., & Lumpkin, G. T. (2009). Research in social entrepreneurship: Past contributions and future opportunities. Strategic entrepreneurship journal, 3(2), 161-194.

Sieger, P., & Monsen, E. (2015). Founder, academic, or employee? A nuanced study of career choice intentions.

Journal of Small Business Management, 53(S1), 30-57.

Smith, W. K., Besharov, M. L., Wessels, A. K., & Chertok, M. (2012). A paradoxical leadership model for social entrepreneurs: Challenges, leadership skills, and pedagogical tools for managing social and commercial demands. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 11(3), 463-478.

Souitaris, V., Zerbinati, S., & Al-Laham, A. (2007). Do entrepreneurship programmes raise entrepreneurial intention of science and engineering students? The effect of learning, inspiration and resources. Journal of Business venturing, 22(4), 566-591.

Sutcliffe, K. M., Vogus, T. J., & Dane, E. (2016). Mindfulness in organizations: A cross-level review. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 3, 55-81.

Terry, D. J., & O'Leary, J. E. (1995). The theory of planned behaviour: The effects of perceived behavioural control and self?efficacy. British journal of social psychology, 34(2), 199-220.

Tiwari, P., Bhat, A. K., & Tikoria, J. (2017). An empirical analysis of the factors affecting social entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 7(1), 1-25.

Trafimow, D., Sheeran, P., Conner, M., & Finlay, K. A. (2002). Evidence that perceived behavioural control is a multidimensional construct: Perceived control and perceived difficulty. British journal of social psychology, 41(1), 101-121.

Tyszka, T., Cie?lik, J., Domurat, A., & Macko, A. (2011). Motivation, self-efficacy, and risk attitudes among entrepreneurs during transition to a market economy. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 40(2), 124-131.

Urban, B., & Kujinga, L. (2017). The institutional environment and social entrepreneurship intentions. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 23(4), 638–655. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJEBR-07-2016-0218

Vago, D. R., & David, S. A. (2012). Self-awareness, self-regulation, and self-transcendence (S-ART): A framework for understanding the neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 296. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2012.00296

Waddock, S., & Steckler, E. (2016). Visionaries and wayfinders: Deliberate and emergent pathways to vision in social entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Ethics, 133(4), 719–734. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-014- 2451-x

Wang, J. H., Chang, C.-C., Yao, S. N., & Liang, C. (2016). The contribution of self- efficacy to the relationship between personality traits and entrepreneurial intention. Higher Education, 72(2), 209–224. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-015-9946-y

Weick, K. E., & Sutcliffe, K. M. (2006). Mindfulness and the quality of organizational attention. Organization Science, 17(4), 514–524. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.1060.0196

Zahra, S. A., Gedajlovic, E., NeuBaum, D. O., & Shulman, J. M. (2009). A typology of social entrepreneurs: Motives, search processes and ethical challenges. Journal of Business Venturing, 24(5), 519–532. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2008.04.007