Main Article Content
This study examined the antecedent and consequent relationship between sustainable tourism marketing and brand equity in the Malaysian rural community-based homestays perspective. To collect responses a self-administered questionnaire method was employed. Homestays operators from three Malaysian states, namely Kuala Lumpur/ Selangor, Pahang, and Pulau Pinang participated in the study. To test research hypotheses a structural equation modelling approach was used. The findings of the study suggest that the antecedent (sustainable tourism marketing), the consequent (brand equity), and moderator (political support by local authorities) have a significant relationship. The findings propose that “sustainable tourism marketing” promotes rural community-based tourism. Also, as a branding tool for sustainable rural community-based tourism. This study provides a unique contribution to the tourism body of knowledge by introducing political support by local authorities as a moderator in sustainable tourism marketing and brand equity relationship. Rural community-based homestays can employ tailor-made promotion policies for the development of homestays’ business brands; likewise, policymakers can apply undifferentiated promotion policies for the holistic expansion of the sustainable homestay market.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Aaker, D. A. (1991). Capitalizing on the value of a brand name. New York, 28(1), 35?37.
Affizah, A. D., & Melissa, W. (2017). Sustainable community development through a homestay programme. Journal of Public Administration and Governance, 7(1), 71?86.
Agyeiwaah, E., McKercher, B., & Suntikul, W. (2017). Identifying core indicators of sustainable tourism: A path forward? Tourism Management Perspectives, 24, 26?33.
Almeyda-ibáñez, M., & George, B. P. (2017). The evolution of destination branding: A review of branding literature in tourism. Journal of Tourism, Heritage & Services Marketing, 3(1), 9?17.
Artal-Tur, A., Briones-Peñalver, A. J., Bernal-Conesa, J. A., & Martínez-Salgado, O. (2019). Rural community tourism and sustainable advantages in Nicaragua. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.
Aray, Y., Veselova, A., Knatko, D., & Levchenko, A. (2020). Drivers for adoption of sustainability initiatives in supply chains of large Russian firms under environmental uncertainty. Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society.
Ashrafi, M., Adams, M., Walker, T. R., & Magnan, G. (2018). How corporate social responsibility can be integrated into corporate sustainability: a theoretical review of their relationships. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 25(8), 672?682.
Aziz, R. C., Hashim, N. A. A. N., & Awang, Z. (2018). Tourism development in rural areas: Potentials of appreciative inquiry approach. Journal of Tourism, Hospitality & Culinary Arts, 10(1), 59?75.
Baalbaki, S., & Guzmán, F. (2016). A consumer-perceived consumer-based brand equity scale. Journal of Brand Management, 23(3), 229–251. https://doi.org/10.1057/bm.2016.11
Balasingam, A. S., & Bojei, J. (2019). Homestay owners’ perspective of economic sustainability of the registered Malaysian homestay. Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities, 27(2).
Banerjee, S. B., Iyer, E. S., & Kashyap, R. K. (2003). Corporate environmentalism: Antecedents and influence of industry type. Journal of Marketing, 67(2), 106?122.
Bojei, J., Awang, K. W., & Mohd Radzi, S. (2017). Institutional sustainability of Malaysian homestays: Government perspective. Journal of Tourism, Hospitality & Culinary Arts (JTHCA), 9(3), 85?103.
Carroll, A. B. (1979). A three-dimensional conceptual model of corporate performance. Academy of Management Review, 4(4), 497?505.
Chakraborty, B. (2020). Homestay as a reliable promotional tool for cultural tourism and security in Indian context. IJSSTH, (21), 5.
Cho, M., Bonn, M. A., & Jung, H. S. (2021). What drives restaurant competitive productivity (CP): A comprehensive examination at meso-micro levels. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.
Choi, H. C., & Sirakaya, E. (2006). Sustainability indicators for managing community tourism. Tourism Management, 27(6), 1274–1289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2005.05.018
Chen, L., Lin, S., & Kuo, C. (2013). Rural tourism: Marketing strategies for the bed and breakfast industry in Taiwan. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 32, 278–286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2012.07.005
Coelho, A., Bairrada, C., Simão, L., & Barbosa, C. (2020). The Drivers of the City Brand Equity Comparing Citizens’ and Tourists’ Perceptions and Its Influence on the City Attractiveness: The Case of the City of Coimbra. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 1-27.
Cooper, J. A., & Alderman, D. H. (2020). Cancelling March Madness exposes opportunities for a more sustainable sports tourism economy. Tourism Geographies, 22(3), 525-535.
Cohen, J. (1988). Set correlation and contingency tables. Applied psychological measurement, 12(4), 425-434.
Cristobal-Fransi, E., Hernández-Soriano, F., Ferrer-Rosell, B., & Daries, N. (2019). Exploring service quality among online sharing economy platforms from an online media perspective. Sustainability, 11(13), 3690.
Cristófol, F. J., Cruz-Ruiz, E., & Zamarreño-Aramendia, G. (2021). Transmission of Place Branding Values through Experiential Events: Wine BC Case Study. Sustainability, 13(6), 3002.
Dangi, T. B., & Jamal, T. (2016). An integrated approach to “sustainable community-based tourism". Sustainability, 8(5), 475.
Dinis, I., Simões, O., Cruz, C., & Teodoro, A. (2019). Understanding the impact of intentions in the adoption of local development practices by rural tourism hosts in Portugal. Journal of Rural Studies, (September), 0–1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2019.10.002
Dressler, M., & Paunovic, I. (2021). The Value of Consistency: Portfolio Labeling Strategies and Impact on Winery Brand Equity. Sustainability, 13(3), 1400.
Elkington, J. (2004). Enter the triple bottom line in Henriques, A. and Richardson, J.(Eds); The Triple Bottom Line: Does It All Add up. Earth scan, UK.
Estol, J., Camilleri, M. A., & Font, X. (2018). European Union tourism policy: an institutional theory critical discourse analysis. Tourism Review. https://doi.org/10.1108/TR-11-2017-0167.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research, 18(1), 39-50.
Ghezal, R., & Khemakhem, R. (2020). Investigating organizational factors of social response activities and their effect on corporate social performance in MNE’s subsidiaries operating in Tunisia. Review of International Business and Strategy.
González-Mansilla, Ó., Berenguer-Contrí, G., & Serra-Cantallops, A. (2019). The impact of value co- creation on hotel brand equity and customer satisfaction. Tourism Management, 75, 51-65.
Grubor, A., & Milovanov, O. (2017). Brand strategies in the era of sustainability, 15(1), 78–88. https://doi.org/10.7906/indecs.15.1.6
Hamdan, H. A., Andersen, P. H., & de Boer, L. (2021). Stakeholder collaboration in sustainable neighborhood projects–A review and research agenda. Sustainable Cities and Society, 102776.
Hair, J. F. (2018). Advanced issues in partial least squares structural equation modeling. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modelling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing science, 43(1), 115-135.
Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2018). Event tourism and event imposition: A critical case study from Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Tourism Management, 64, 73-86.
Hudson, S., So, K. K. F., Li, J., Meng, F., & Cárdenas, D. (2019). Persuading tourists to stay–Forever! A destination marketing perspective. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 12, 105-113.
Janjua, Z. U. A., Krishnapillai, G., & Rahman, M. (2021). A Systematic Literature Review of Rural Homestays and Sustainability in Tourism. SAGE Open, 11(2), 21582440211007117.
Jung, J., Kim, S. J., & Kim, K. H. (2020). Sustainable marketing activities of traditional fashion market and brand loyalty. Journal of Business Research.
Kang, J. W., & Namkung, Y. (2016). Restaurant information sharing on social networking sites: do network externalities matter? Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 40(6), 739-763. https://doi.org/10.1177/1096348015619413.
Kapera, I. (2018). Sustainable tourism development efforts by local governments in Poland. Sustainable cities and society, 40, 581-588.
Kastenholz, E., Carneiro Maria Joa?o, Euse?bio Celeste, & Figueiredo, E. (2016). Meeting challenges for rural tourism through co-creation of sustainable tourist experiences. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Kavita, E., & Saarinen, J. (2016). Tourism and rural community development in Namibia: policy issues review. Fennia-International Journal of Geography, 194(1), 79-88. https://doi.org/10.11143/46331
Keller, K. L. (2003). Understanding brands, branding and brand equity. Interactive Marketing, 5(1), 7-20.
Khandelwal, U., Kulshreshtha, K., & Tripathi, V. (2019). Importance of Consumer-based Green Brand Equity: Empirical Evidence. Paradigm, 23(1), 83-97.
Khartishvili, L., Muhar, A., Dax, T., & Khelashvili, I. (2019). Rural tourism in Georgia in transition: challenges for regional sustainability. Sustainability, 11(2), 410.
Khan, I. S., Ahmad, M. O., & Majava, J. (2021). Industry 4.0 and sustainable development: A systematic mapping of triple bottom line, Circular Economy and Sustainable Business Models perspectives. Journal of Cleaner Production, 126655.
Kock, F., Berbekova, A., & Assaf, A. G. (2021). Understanding and managing the threat of common method bias: Detection, prevention and control. Tourism Management, 86, 104330.
Kim, J., Sun, Y., Kim, K. H., & Kang, S. (2019). Sustainability and customer equity : Evaluation of citing networks and contributions. Journal of Global Fashion Marketing, 10(3), 267–274. https://doi.org/10.1080/20932685.2019.1611464
Kumar, V., & Christodoulopoulou, A. (2014). Sustainability and branding: An integrated perspective. Industrial Marketing Management, 43(1), 6-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indmarman.2013.06.008
Kunjuraman, V. (2020). Community-based ecotourism managing to fuel community empowerment? An evidence from Malaysian Borneo. Tourism Recreation Research, 1-16.
Kunjuraman, V., & Hussin, R. (2017). Challenges of community-based homestay programme in Sabah, Malaysia: Hopeful or hopeless?. Tourism Management Perspectives, 21, 1-9.
Li, T., Liu, J., Zhu, H., & Zhang, S. (2018). Business characteristics and efficiency of rural tourism enterprises: an empirical study from China. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 23(6), 549-559. https://doi.org/10.1080/10941665.2018.1483957
Lim, Y. M., & Lee, T. H. (2020). Operating Issues and Challenges: The case of Pachitan Homestay From 2017 to 2019. Journal of Marketing Advance and Practices, 2(1)
Liao, Y. K., Wu, W. Y., Amaya Rivas, A. A., & Lin Ju, T. (2017). Cognitive, experiential, and marketing factors mediate the effect of brand personality on brand equity. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 45(1), 1-18.
Liu, J., An, K., & Jang, S. S. (2020). A model of tourists’ civilized behaviors: Toward sustainable coastal tourism in China. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 16, 100437.
Liu, C., Dou, X., Li, J., & Cai, L. A. (2020). Analyzing government role in rural tourism development: An empirical investigation from China. Journal of Rural Studies, 79, 177-188.
Lou?anová, E., Šupín, M., ?orejová, T., Repková-Štofková, K., Šupínová, M., Štofková, Z., & Olšiaková, M. (2021). Sustainability and Branding: An Integrated Perspective of Eco- innovation and Brand. Sustainability, 13(2), 732.
Luzzani, G., Lamastra, L., Valentino, F., & Capri, E. (2021). Development and implementation of a qualitative framework for the sustainable management of wine companies. Science of The Total Environment, 759, 143462.
Malaysia Tourism Statistics in Brief. (n.d.). Retrieved December 1, 2018, from https://www.tourism.gov.my/statistics
Martinez, P., & Nishiyama, N. (2019). Enhancing customer-based brand equity through CSR in the hospitality sector. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 20(3), 329- 353.
Marzuki, A., Hay, I., & James, J. (2012). Public participation shortcomings in tourism planning: the case of the Langkawi Islands, Malaysia. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 20(4), 585-602. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2011.638384
Mena, J. A., Hult, G. T. M., Ferrell, O. C., & Zhang, Y. (2018). Competing assessments of market- driven, sustainability-centered , and stakeholder-focused approaches to the customer-brand relationships and performance. Journal of Business Research, (June), 0–1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.07.038
Miller, G., & Twining-Ward, L. (2005). Monitoring for a sustainable tourism transition: The challenge of developing and using indicators. CABI Pub.
Müller, U., Habel, J., & Stierl, M. (2017). Exerting pressure or leveraging power? The extended chain of corporate social responsibility enforcement in business-to-business supply chains. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 36(2), 331-347.
Mikuli?, J., Mili?evi?, K., & Kreši?, D. (2016). The relationship between brand strength and tourism intensity: Empirical evidence from the EU capital cities. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research.
Padin, C. (2012). A sustainable tourism planning model: Components and relationships. European business review.
Parguel, B., Benoît-Moreau, F., & Larceneux, F. (2011). How sustainability ratings might deter ‘greenwashing’: A closer look at ethical corporate communication. Journal of business ethics, 102(1), 15-28.
Pasanchay, K., & Schott, C. (2021). Community-based tourism homestays’ capacity to advance the Sustainable Development Goals: A holistic sustainable livelihood perspective. Tourism Management Perspectives, 37(November 2020), 100784. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2020.100784
Phelan, A., Ruhanen, L., & Mair, J. (2020). Ecosystem services approach for community-based ecotourism: Towards an equitable and sustainable blue economy. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 28(10), 1665-1685.
Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 885(879), 10-1037.
Pulido-Fernández, J. I., Cárdenas-García, P. J., & Espinosa-Pulido, J. A. (2019). Does environmental sustainability contribute to tourism growth. An analysis at the country level. Journal of Cleaner Production, 213, 309–319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.12.151
Rasoolimanesh, S. M., Roldán, J. L., Jaafar, M., & Ramayah, T. (2017). Factors influencing residents’ perceptions toward tourism development: Differences across rural and urban world heritage sites. Journal of Travel Research, 56(6), 760-775.
Rasoolimanesh, S. M., Ramakrishna, S., Hall, C. M., Esfandiar, K., & Seyfi, S. (2020). A systematic scoping review of sustainable tourism indicators in relation to the sustainable development goals. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1-21.
Ren, J., & Toniolo, S. (2021). Interval reference point technique for sustainable industrial processs election under uncertainties. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 27, 354-371.
Renfors, S. M. (2020). Stakeholders’ Perceptions of Sustainable Tourism Development in a Cold- Water Destination: the Case of the Finnish Archipelago. Tourism Planning & Development, 1- 19.
Ruiz-Ortega, M. J., Parra-Requena, G., & García-Villaverde, P. M. (2021). From entrepreneurial orientation to sustainability orientation: The role of cognitive proximity in companies in tourist destinations. Tourism Management, 84, 104265.
Rust, R. T., Rand, W., Huang, M. H., Stephen, A. T., Brooks, G., & Chabuk, T. (2021). EXPRESS: Real-Time Brand Reputation Tracking Using Social Media. Journal of Marketing, 0022242921995173.
Saad, N. H. M., Khalid, S. N. A., & Abidin, N. Z. (2014). Tourism Development and Planning at a Local Authority Level: A Case in Manjung, Perak, Malaysia. In SHS Web of Conferences (Vol. 12, p. 01092). EDP Sciences.
Scott, K., Martin, D. M., & Schouten, J. W. (2014). Marketing and the new materialism. Journal of Macromarketing, 34(3), 282–290.
Sen, V., & Walter, P. (2020). Community-based ecotourism and the transformative learning of homestay hosts in Cambodia. Tourism Recreation Research, 45(3), 323–336.
Sheth, J. N., & Sinha, M. (2015). B2B branding in emerging markets: A sustainability perspective. Industrial Marketing Management, 51, 79–88.
Shukor, M. S., Salleh, N. H. M., Othman, R., & Idris, S. H. M. (2014). Perception of homestay operators towards homestay development in Malaysia. Jurnal Pengurusan (UKM Journal of Management), 42.
Schulz, S. A., & Flanigan, R. L. (2016). Developing competitive advantage using the triple bottom line: A conceptual framework. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing.
Singh, J., & Del Bosque, I. R. (2008). Understanding corporate social responsibility and product perceptions in consumer markets: A cross-cultural evaluation. Journal of Business Ethics, 80(3), 597–611. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-007-9457-6
Tang, Z., Shi, C. B., & Liu, Z. (2011). Sustainable development of tourism industry in China under the low-carbon economy. Energy Procedia, 5, 1303–1307. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2011.03.226
Taylor, L., & Hochuli, D. F. (2015). Creating better cities: how biodiversity and ecosystem functioning enhance urban residents’ wellbeing. Urban ecosystems, 18(3), 747–762.
Tevapitak, K., & Helmsing, A. B. (2019). The interaction between local governments and stakeholders in environmental management: The case of water pollution by SMEs in Thailand. Journal of environmental management, 247, 840–848.
Turker, D. (2009). Measuring corporate social responsibility: A scale development study. Journal of Business Ethics, 85(4), 411–427. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-008-9780-6
Vesal, M., Siahtiri, V., & O'Cass, A. (2021). Strengthening B2B brands by signalling environmental sustainability and managing customer relationships. Industrial Marketing Management. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indmarman.2020.02.024
Wanner, A., Seier, G., & Pröbstl-Haider, U. (2020). Policies related to sustainable tourism–An assessment and comparison of European policies, frameworks and plans. Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, 29, 100275. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jort.2019.100275
Wang, Q., Zhang, M., & Wang, W. (2021). Analysis of the impact of foreign direct investment on urbanization in China from the perspective of “circular economy”. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-12321-7
Wise, N. (2016). Outlining triple bottom line contexts in urban tourism regeneration. Cities, 53, 30–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2016.01.003
Wise, N., Peri?, M., & Ðurkin, J. (2019). Benchmarking service delivery for sports tourism and events: Lessons for Gorski Kotar, Croatia from Pokljuka, Slovenia. European Journal of Tourism Research, 22, 107–128.
Wise, N. (2020). Urban and Rural Event Tourism and Sustainability: Exploring Economic, Social and Environmental Impacts.
Wondirad, A., Tolkach, D., & King, B. (2020). Stakeholder collaboration as a major factor for sustainable ecotourism development in developing countries. Tourism Management, 78, 104024.
Wu, K. J., Zhu, Y., Chen, Q., & Tseng, M. L. (2019). Building sustainable tourism hierarchical framework: Coordinated triple bottom line approach in linguistic preferences. Journal of Cleaner Production, 229, 157–168.
Yoo, B., & Donthu, N. (2001). Developing and validating a multidimensional consumer-based brand equity scale. Journal of Business Research, 52(1), 1–14.
Zatul, N., Hussin, I., & Buchmann, A. (2018). Understanding tourism development policies in Malaysia. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, 11(2), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/19407963.2018.1516091
Zhang, T. C., Omran, B. A., & Cobanoglu, C. (2017). Generation Y’s positive and negative eWOM: Use of social media and mobile technology. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.
Zhang, L., & Zhang, J. (2018). Perception of small tourism enterprises in Lao PDR regarding social sustainability under the influence of social network. Tourism Management, 69, 109?120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2018.05.012
Zimmermann, F. M. (2018). Does sustainability (still) matter in tourism (geography). Tourism Geographies, 20(2), 333?336. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2018.1434814
Zolfani, S., Sedaghat, M., Maknoon, R., & Zavadskas, E. K. (2015). Sustainable tourism: A comprehensive literature review on frameworks and applications. Economic Research- Ekonomska Istraživanja, 28(1), 1?30. https://doi.org/10.1080/1331677X.2014.995895