Main Article Content
This paper examines the relevance of Islamic environmental theology in contemporary Islamic society. Islamic law or Shariah gives a significant prominence to environmental care. The responsibility to care for the environment is set at individual and societal levels, as outlined in the primary sources of Shariah. In line with the industrial and vast economic development, the modern jurists have extended the moral and religious obligations to firms. Environment is an important element that supports the objective of Shariah or maqasid al-Shariah, which is to safeguard the interests of all beings. However, the current devastating state of the global environment, including those of Islam-majority and Islam- dominated countries, poses major challenges to the maqasid al-Shariah. Environmental degradation is threatening the dharuriyyah level of maqasid al-Shariah, or the basic necessities of human. In view of this devastating phenomenon, this paper highlights the relevance of Islamic legal maxim of harm prevention, and how it can provide an impetus to the global environmental sustainability in modifying human attitudes and actions pertaining to the environment. We conclude that progressive interpretations of Shariah by way of incorporating vast economic development and social changes are important to address new necessities of maqasid al-Shariah. While holding on to the principles of Shariah, religious rulings pertaining to environmental matters are to be aligned to the current changing needs and problems of the society.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Abdallah, S. (2010). Islamic ethics: An exposition for resolving ICT ethical dilemmas. Journal of Information, Communication & Ethics in Society, 8(3), 289–301. https://doi.org/10.1108/14779961011071088
Akhtar, M. R. (1996). Towards an Islamic approach for environmental balance. Islamic Economic Studies, 3(2), 57–76.
Al-Majalla. (2005). Al-Majalla al Ahkam Al Adaliyah: The Ottoman Courts Manual (Hanafi). Retrieved December 5, 2021 from http://legal.pipa.ps/files/server/ENG%20Ottoman%20Majalle%20(Civil%20Law).pdf
Al-Majid, O. N. A. (1999). Environmental issues: From Islamic point of view. Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs Doha.
Al-Munajjid, S. M. S. (2020, 22 March). The hadith “Whoever harms [others], Allah will harm him, and whoever causes hardship [to others] Allah will cause hardship to him”. Islam question & answer. https://islamqa.info/en/answers/285915/the-hadith-whoever-harms-others-allah-will-harm-him-and-whoever-causes-hardship-to-others-allah-will-cause-hardship-to-him
Ali, E. M. T. A., Mohd, Z., & Al-Shafi’i, M. M. O. (2017). Vaccination from the perspective of Islamic legal maxim. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 7(12), 607–614. https://doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i12/3642
BBC News (2016, 14 September). Forest-burning is a sin, says Indonesian fatwa. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-37358253
Bilal, G. (1999). Business organizations under Islamic law: A brief overview. Proceedings of the Third Harvard University Forum on Islamic Finance: Local Challenges, Global Opportunities, Massachusetts, pp 83–89.
Bin Shaikh Mohd Salleh, S. M. S., & Kamarulzaman, A. (2016). Implementation of an Islamic approach to harm reduction among illicit drug users in Malaysia. In: M. Kamali, O. Bakar, D. F. Batchelor, & R. Hashim. (Eds.), Islamic Perspectives on Science and Technology (pp269–274). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-287-778-9_18
Chan, A., & Islam, M. S. (2015). State, religion, and environmentalism: Fostering social cohesion and environmental protection in Singapore. Environmental Sociology, 1(3), 177–189. https://doi.org/10.1080/23251042.2015.1045263
Chew, S. C. (2001). World ecological degradation: Accumulation, urbanization, and deforestation 3000 B.C.–A.D. 2000. Altamira Press.
Dien, M. I. (2000). The environmental dimensions of Islam. The Lutterworth Press.
Dusuki, A. W., & Bouheraoua, S. (2011). The framework of maqasid al-Shariah and its implication for Islamic finance. Islam and Civilizational Renewal, 2(2), 316–336. https://doi.org/10.52282/icr.v2i2.651
Ewing, B., Goldfinger, S., Oursler, A., Moore, A. R. D., & Wackernagel, M. (2009). Ecological footprint atlas 2009. Global Footprint Network.
Gari, L. (2006). A history of the Hima conservation system. Environment and History, 12(2), 213–228. https://doi.org/10.3197/096734006776680236
Global Footprint Network. (n.d). Ecological footprint per person. https://data.footprintnetwork.org/#/
Hassan, A. (2016). Islamic ethical responsibilities for business and sustainable development.Humanomics,32(1),80–94.https://doi.org/10.1108/H-07-2015-0047
Herdiansyah, H., Jokopitoyo, R., & Munir, A. (2016). Environmental awareness to realizing green Islamic boarding school (Eco-Pesantren) in Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 30, 012017. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/30/1/012017
Husain, R. (2014, 14 October). Saudis ban smoking, hookahs, tobacco in Islam’s holiest cities. The Washington Times.
Islam, M. S. (2012). Old philosophy, new movement: The rise of the Islamic ecological paradigm in the discourse of the environmentalism. Nature and Culture, 7(1). https://doi.org/10.3167/nc.2012.070105
Ismaeel, M., & Blaim, K. (2012). Toward applied Islamic business ethics: Responsible halal business. Journal of Management Development, 31(10), 1090–1100. https://doi.org/10.1108/02621711211281889
Ismail, M. F. M. (2018). Development of Islamic ethical framework on harm prevention in nursing practices. Doctoral dissertation, International Islamic University Malaysia. International Islamic University Malaysia Repository, https://studentrepo.iium.edu.my/bitstream/123456789/5866/1/t11100401582MohdFirdaus%20MohdIsmail_SEC_24.pdf
Kamali, M. H. (1999). Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence. Ilmiah Publishers. Kamarulzaman, A., & Salleh, S. M. S. (2010). Islam and harm reduction. International Journal of Drug Policy, 21(2), 115–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2009.11.003
Khalid, F. M. (2002). Islam and the environment. In P. Timmerman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of global environmental change. John Wiley & Sons.
Khan, M. M. (n.d). Translation of Sahih Bukhari. Retrieved 13 January 2021 from https://www.iium.edu.my/deed/hadith/bukhari/
Malay Mail. (2015, 4 October). Haze worsens nationwide, API in Shah Alam hits ‘hazardous’ level. MalayMail. https://www.malaymail.com/news/malaysia/2015/10/04/haze-worsens-nationwide-api-in-shah-alam-hits-hazardous-level/981321
Mangunjaya, F. M. (2011). Developing environmental awareness and conservation through Islamic teaching. Journal of Islamic Studies, 22(1), 36–49. https://doi.org/10.1093/jis/etq067
Mangunjaya, F. M., & McKay, J. E. (2012). Reviving an Islamic Approach for Environmental Conservation in Indonesia. Worldviews, 16(3), 286–305. https://doi.org/10.1163/15685357-01603006
Mohammed, J. A. (2007). Corporate social responsibility in Islam. Doctoral dissertation, Auckland University of Technology. Auckland University of Technology Repository. https://openrepository.aut.ac.nz/handle/10292/354
Mohamed Sanusi, M. (2008). Money laundering with particular reference to the banking deposit transactions: An Islamic perspective. Journal of Money Laundering Control, 11(3), 251–260.
Muhsin, S. M., Amanullah, M., & Zakariyah, L. (2019). Framework for harm elimination in light of the Islamic legal maxims. The Islamic Quarterly, 63(2), 233–272.
Naseef, D. A. O. (1998). The Muslim declaration on nature. In H. A. Haleem (Ed.), Islam and the environment. Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd.
Nasir, N. M., Nair, M. S., & Ahmed, P. K. (2021). Institutional isomorphismandenvironmental sustainability: A new framework from the Shariah perspective. Environment Development and Sustainability, 23, 13555–13568. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-021-01227-0
Parvez, Z. (2000). Building a new society: An Islamic approach to social change. Revival Publication.
Parvez, Z., & Ahmed, P. (2004). An Islamic perspective on the lack of social responsibility in business organizations. University of Wolverhampton. Telford. Retrieved 4 August 2020 from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.564.3377&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Pickthall, M. M. (2001). The meaning of the glorious Quran. Islamic Book Trust.
Rice, G. (2006). Pro-environmental behavior in Egypt: Is there a role for Islamic environmental ethics? Journal of Business Ethics, 65(4), 373–390.
Saged, A. A. G., Alhaj, T. A. A., & Bi, M. Y. Z. (2017). The role of the maq?sid al-Shar??ah in preserving the environment. Humanomics, 33(2), 125–132. https://doi.org/10.1108/H-12-2016-0105
Shaham, R. (2020). Legal maxims (qaw??id fiqhiyya) in Y?suf al-Qara??w?’s jurisprudence and fatwas. Journal of the American Oriental Society, 140(2), 435–453. https://doi.org/10.7817/jameroriesoci.140.2.0435
Shahran, M. F. M. (2020). The priority of preventing harm in the society. New Straits Times. https://www.nst.com.my/opinion/columnists/2020/10/631030/priority-preventing-harm-society.
Shettima, M. (2011). Effects of the legal maxim ‘No harming and no counter-harming’ on the enforcement of environmental protection, International Islamic University Malaysia Law Journal, 19(2), 291–308. https://doi.org/10.31436/iiumlj.v19i2.12
Shrivastava, P. (1995). The role of corporations in achieving ecological sustainability. The Academy of Management Review, 20(4), 936–960. https://doi.org/10.2307/258961
Tahanawi, M. A. i. A. a. (1996). Al-kašš?f: maws??a? i??il?h?t al-fun?n wa-l-?ul?m (A. A. a.-. Khalidi & G. a. Zinati, Trans.). Maktaba? Lubn?n.
United Nations. (2015). Islamic declaration on climate change. External Statement. UNFCC.https://unfccc.int/news/islamic-declaration-on-climate-change
United Nations. (n.d.-a). Department of Economics and Social Affairs. Sustainable Development (n.d.) Goals 15 Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss. Retrieved 5 August 2020 from https://sdgs.un.org/goals/goal15
United Nations. (n.d.-b). Department of Economics and Social Affairs. Disability (n.d.) #Envision2030 Goal 12: Responsible Consumption and Production. Retrieved 5 August 2020 from https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/envision2030-goal12.html
World Population Review. (n.d). Most polluted countries 2020. Retrieved 4 December 2021 from https://worldpopulationreview.com/country-rankings/most-polluted-countries
WWF. (2012). Living Planet Report 2012. https://wwf.panda.org/discover/knowledge_ hub/all_publications/living_planet_report_timeline/lpr_2012/