Potential Protective Effects of Rice Seedling Extracts of a Malaysian Rice Variety, Biris, Against Doxorubicin-Induced Cytotoxicity

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Brandon Yeo Pei Hui
Mrinal Bhave
Siaw San Hwang


Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs for treating a wide range of neoplasms such as leukaemia, lymphoma and breast cancer; however, it is often related to cardiomyopathy. Currently, there is no established treatment for reducing the impact of cardiomyopathy without noticeable side effects. Thus, this study set out to investigate potential protective effects of rice seedlings extracts (RSE) against DOX-induced cytotoxicity using in vitro cell culture studies. The antioxidant capabilities of RSE were evaluated, and the results showed lower amounts of total phenolic content (TPC), but similar total flavonoid content (TFC) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), compared to wheatgrass seedlings extracts. A series of absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy experiments indicated that RSE could hinder the formation of DOX-DNA complexes at the tested concentrations. Further, the viability of a rat cardiomyocyte cell line, H9c2(2-1), was tested after 24, 48 and 72 h of DOX treatments in the presence of RSE, using a tetrazolium salt (MTS reagent) based cell proliferation assay. The results indicated significant protective effects of RSE against DOX-induced cytotoxicity. The nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line, HK1, was used as a control to determine whether the efficacy of DOX is affected by the co-administration of RSE. The results indicated no negative effects on the efficacy of the drug. These multiple beneficial properties of RSE indicate its strong potential for development of a cardioprotective agent to compliment the DOX treatment in clinical settings.


Doxorubicin (DOX) adalah salah satu ubat kemoterapi yang paling berkesan untuk merawat pelbagai neoplasma seperti leukemia, limfoma dan kanser payudara. Walau bagaimanapun, ia sering dikaitkan dengan kardiomiopati. Pada masa ini, tiada rawatan yang sesuai untuk mengurangkan kesan kardiomiopati tanpa kesan sampingan yang ketara. Oleh itu, kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji kesan-kesan perlindungan potensi ekstrak benih padi (RSE) terhadap kesitotoksikan yang disebabkan oleh DOX menggunakan kajian kultur sel vitro. Keupayaan antioksidan RSE dinilai, dan hasilnya menunjukkan jumlah kandungan fenolik yang lebih rendah (TPC), tetapi jumlah kandungan flavonoid total (TFC) dan kapasiti antioksidan yang setara trolox (TEAC), dibandingkan dengan ekstrak benih wheatgrass. Satu siri eksperimen spektroskopi penyerapan dan pendarfluor menunjukkan bahawa RSE boleh menghalang pembentukan kompleks DOX-DNA pada kepekatan yang diuji. Tambahan pula, daya maju sel kardiomiosit sel, H9c2 (2-1), telah diuji selepas 24, 48 dan 72 jam rawatan DOX terhadap RSE menggunakan ujian proliferasi sel berdasarkan garam tetrazolium (MTS reagent). Hasilnya menunjukkan kesan perlindungan yang signifikan terhadap RSE terhadap kesitotoksikan yang disebabkan oleh DOX. Jalur sel karsinoma nasofarinks, HK1, digunakan sebagai kawalan untuk menentukan sama ada keberkesanan DOX terjejas oleh pentadbiran bersama RSE. Hasilnya tidak menunjukkan kesan negatif terhadap keberkesanan dadah. Pelbagai sifat berfaedah RSE menunjukkan potensi kuatnya untuk membangunkan agen kardioprotektif untuk melengkapi rawatan DOX dalam tetapan klinikal.

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Brandon Yeo Pei Hui, Mrinal Bhave, & Siaw San Hwang. (2019). Potential Protective Effects of Rice Seedling Extracts of a Malaysian Rice Variety, Biris, Against Doxorubicin-Induced Cytotoxicity. Tropical Life Sciences Research, 30(2), 71–90. https://doi.org/10.21315/tlsr2019.30.2.6
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