Molecular Diversity of Microbes Associated with Fermented Bamboo Shoots

Main Article Content

Vijay Kumar
Bindu Naik
Sachin Sharma
Akhilesh Kumar
Javed Masood Khan
Mohammad Irfan


Fermented bamboo shoots are rich in high protein, carbohydrates, fibre and minerals while low in fat content. In the North-East region of India and other Asian countries, they are mostly used in various food preparations. The present study was undertaken to explore the diversity of bacteria associated with Bamboo shoots and to evaluate their antibacterial profile. Based on the results the fermented bamboo shoots showed viable counts ranging from 6.55 ± 0.91 log CFU/g to 7.86 ± 1.21 log CFU/g. The 16s rRNA sequence analysis showed that these isolates belonged to the genus Bacillus (Bacillus safensis, B. tequilensis, B. siamensis, B. nakamurai, B. subtilis) and Enterobacter. These isolates have not been reported previously from fermented bamboo shoots except B. subtilis. Surprisingly, no Lactobacillus species or molds were found in any of the samples tested. Potent antibacterial activity was recorded against Klebsiella, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and B. cereus.

Article Details

How to Cite
Molecular Diversity of Microbes Associated with Fermented Bamboo Shoots. (2022). Tropical Life Sciences Research, 33(3), 151–164.
Original Article


Abid Y, Azabou S, Casillo A, Gharsallah H, Jemil N, Lanzetta R, Attia H and Corsaro M M. (2019). Isolation and structural characterization of levan produced by probiotic Bacillus tequilensis-GM from Tunisian fermented goat milk. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 133: 786–794.

AOAC (1990). Approved methods of Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 15th ed. Arlington, VA: Association of Official Analytical Chemists, no. 947.05.

Badwaik L S, Borah P K, Borah K, Das A J, Deka S C and Sharma H K. (2014). Influence of fermentation on nutritional compositions, antioxidant activity, total phenolic and microbial load of bamboo shoot. Food Science and Technology Research 20(2): 255–262.

Barus T, Kristani A and Yulandi A. (2013). Diversity of amylase-producing Bacillus spp. from “tape”(fermented Cassava). HAYATI Journal of Biosciences 20(2): 94–98.

Behera P and Balaji S. (2021). Health benefits of fermented bamboo shoots: The twentyfirst century green gold of northeast India. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 193(6): 1800–1812.

Bray H G and Thorpe W V. (1954). Analysis of phenolic compounds of interest in metabolism. Methods of Biochemical Analysis 1: 27–52.

Chen Y S, Wu H C, Liu C H, Chen H C and Yanagida F. (2010). Isolation and characterization of lactic acid bacteria from jiang?sun (fermented bamboo shoots), traditional fermented food in Taiwan. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 90(12): 1977–1982.

Choudhury D, Sahu J K and Sharma G D. (2012). Value addition to bamboo shoots: A review. Journal of Food Science and Technology 49(4): 407–414.

Chun J, Lee J H, Jung Y, Kim M, Kim S, Kim B K and Lim Y W. (2007). EzTaxon: A web-based tool for the identification of prokaryotes based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. International Journal Systematic and Evolutionary and Microbiology 57(10): 2259–2261.

Founou L L, Founou R C and Essack S Y. (2016). Antibiotic resistance in the food chain: A developing country perspective. Frontiers in Microbiology 7: 1881.

Gandhi Y S, Bankar V H, Vishwakarma R P, Satpute S R and Upkare M M. (2017). Reducing sugar determination of jaggery by classical lane and eynon method and 3, 5-Dinitrosalicylic acid method. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research 3(6): 602–606.

Goyal A K, Middha S K, Usha T, Chatterjee S, Bothra A K, Nagaveni M B and Sen A. (2010). Bamboo-infoline: A database for North Bengal bamboo’s. Bioinformation 5(4): 184.

Gurban oglu Gulahmadov S, Batdorj B, Dalgalarrondo M, Chobert J M, Alekper oglu Kuliev A and Haertlé T. (2006). Characterization of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) from lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Azerbaijani cheeses. European Food Research and Technology 224(2), 229–235.

Heo S J, Kim J H, Kwak M S, Jeong D W and Sung M H. (2021). Functional genomic insights into probiotic Bacillus siamensis strain B28 from traditional korean fermented kimchi. Foods 10(8): 1906.

Hu Y, Chen X, Zhou J, Jing W and Guo Q. (2021). Metagenomic analysis of suansun, a traditional chinese unsalted fermented food. Processes 9(9): 1669.

Isolauri E, Salminen S and Ouwehand A C. (2004). Probiotics. Best Practice and Research Clinical Gastroenterology 18(2): 299–313.

Jeyaram K, Romi W, Singh T A, Devi A R and Devi S S. (2010). Bacterial species associated with traditional starter cultures used for fermented bamboo shoot production in Manipur state of India. International Journal of Food Microbiology 143(1–2): 1–8.

Khunjan O, Pandey P and Sharma G D. (2017). Microbial fermentation by traditional process using intrinsic microflora reduces the cyanide content of bamboo shoots. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology 11(1): 465–473.

Kumar S, Stecher G and Tamura K. (2016). MEGA7: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Molecular Biology and Evolution 33(7): 1870–1874.

Kumar V, Bharti A, Gusain O P and Bisht G S. (2010). An improved method for isolation of genomic DNA from filamentous actinomycetes. Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Management 2(2): 10–13.

Kumar V, Naik B, Gusain O and Bisht G S. (2014). An actinomycete isolate from solitary wasp mud nest having strong antibacterial activity and kills the Candida cells due to the shrinkage and the cytosolic loss. Frontiers in Microbiology 5: 446.

Medoua G N, Mbome I L, Agbor-Egbe T and Mbofung C M F. (2008). Influence of fermentation on some quality characteristics of trifoliate yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) hardened tubers. Food Chemistry 107(3): 1180–1186.

Meidong R, Doolgindachbaporn S, Jamjan W, Sakai K, Tashiro Y, Okugawa Y and Tongpim S. (2017). A novel probiotic Bacillussiamensis B44v isolated from Thai pickled vegetables (Phak-dong) for potential use as a feed supplement in aquaculture. Journal of General and Applied Microbiology 63(4): 246–253.

Melini F, Melini V, Luziatelli F, Ficca A G and Ruzzi M. (2019). Health-promoting components in fermented foods: An up-to-date systematic review. Nutrients 11(5): 1189.

Nirmala C, David E and Sharma M L. (2007). Changes in nutrient components during ageing of emerging juvenile bamboo shoots. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 58(8): 612–618.

Palande V, Meora R, Sonavale R M, Makashir M, Modak M S, Kapse N, Dhakephalkar P K, Ranjekar P K and Bipinraj Nirichan Kunchiraman B N. (2015). Inhibition of pathogenic strains of Candida albicans and non-albicans by Bacillus species isolated from traditional Indian fermented food preparations. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 4(3): 691–699.

Saidumohamed B E and Bhat S G. (2021). Indian oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps) gut derived Bacillus safensis SDG14 with enhanced probiotic competence for food and feed applications. Food Research International 150: 110475.

Sharma N and Barooah M. (2017). Microbiology of Khorisa, its proximate composition and probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria present in Khorisa, a traditional fermented bamboo shoot product of Assam. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources 8(1): 78–88.

Tamang B and Tamang J P. (2009). Lactic acid bacteria isolated from indigenous fermented bamboo products of Arunachal Pradesh in India and their functionality. Food Biotechnology 23(2): 133–147.

Tamang B, Tamang J P, Schillinger U, Franz C M, Gores M and Holzapfel W H. (2008). Phenotypic and genotypic identification of lactic acid bacteria isolated from ethnic fermented bamboo tender shoots of North East India. International Journal of Food Microbiology 121(1): 35–40.

Tamang J P, Shin D H, Jung S J and Chae S W. (2016). Functional properties of microorganisms in fermented foods. Frontiers in Microbiology 7: 578.

Tamang J P. (2010). Diversity of fermented foods. In J P Tamang and K Kailasapathy (Eds.), Fermented foods and beverages of the world. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 41–83.

Thakur K, Rajani C S, Tomar S K and Panmei A. (2016). Fermented bamboo shoots: A riche niche for beneficial microbes. Journal of Bacteriology and Mycology 2(4): 87–93.

Thompson J D, Higgins D G and Gibson T J. (1994). CLUSTAL W: Improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, positionspecific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Research 22(22): 4673–4680.

Tindall B J, Rosselló-Móra R, Busse H J, Ludwig W and Kämpfer P. (2010). Notes on the characterization of prokaryote strains for taxonomic purposes. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 60(1): 249–266.