Assessment on Water Quality Parameter and Nutrients Level of Nyatuh River in Relations with Macrobrachium rosenbergii Prawn Populations

Main Article Content

Nor Azman Kasan
Mhd Ikhwanuddin
Hidayah Manan
Nur Syafirah Zakaria
Amyra Suryatie Kamaruzzan
Ahmad Ideris Abdul Rahim
Ahmad Najmi Ishak


In order to determine the safety level of water parameters and nutrients in the natural environment of fish and freshwater prawn in Nyatuh River, Terengganu, Malaysia, it is necessary to conduct an assessment of water quality parameters. Due to its important, a study was conducted to assess the water quality parameter and nutrients contents from Nyatuh River of Setiu Terengganu in relations to the population of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii caught along the Nyatuh River basin. Total of four expeditions and five stations at different tidal condition for the water quality parameter were assessed during the study. From the results achieved, the overall temperature varied between (26.56°C–29.30°C), dissolved oxygen, DO (3.59 mg/L–6.50 mg/L), pH (4.99–7.01), salinity (0.01ppt–4.22ppt), depth (2.71 m–5.54 m) while for ammonia (0.01 mg/L–0.24 mg/L), nitrite (0.01 mg/L–0.05 mg/L) and phosphate (0.01 mg/L–0.12 mg/L). While the number of prawns caught are 176, 160, 102 and 68 for Expeditions 1, 2, 4 and 3, respectively. Possibly, the heterogeneous number of prawns caught is a result of significant differences in water level depth during high tides and low tides, as well as a fluctuation in the ammonia concentration levels in each of the stations and expeditions. For statistical analysis, the temperature showed no significant difference between the expedition, stations and tidal. That is p = 0.280, p > 0.05 and F = 1.206, respectively. While dissolved oxygen, DO, showed no significant difference as well, that is p = 0.714, p > 0.05 and F = 0.737. However, the level of water depth was significantly different between expedition, station and tidal, that is p = 0.000, p < 0.05 and F = 3.120. Ammonia, on the other hand shows no significant difference between expedition, station and tidal, that is p = 0.476, p > 0.05 and F = 0.973. The same goes for nitrite and phosphate concentration. There was no significant difference between expedition, stations and tidal, that is p = 0.569, p > 0.05 and F = 0.879 and p = 0.247, p > 0.05, F = 1.255, respectively. In Expedition 1, the good water quality parameter and very low ammonia concentration resulted in a larger prawn population as compared to other expeditions. The distribution or mixture of prawns caught is heterogeneous at different stations due to the significant differences in water depth and also to the fluctuation in water quality due to varying ammonia levels. In conclusion, the water quality in Nyatuh River fluctuated across expeditions, stations, and tides, as well as significant differences in water level depths between high and low tides. Due to the rapid growth and importance of industrial and aquaculture operations along the river, extra attention should be devoted to avoid the impact of excessive pollutant in order to protect the ecosystem.

Article Details

How to Cite
Assessment on Water Quality Parameter and Nutrients Level of Nyatuh River in Relations with Macrobrachium rosenbergii Prawn Populations. (2023). Tropical Life Sciences Research, 34(1), 51–66.
Original Article


Alssgeer H M A, Gasim M B, Hanafiah M M, Ali Abdulhadi E R and Azid A. (2018). GIS-based analysis of water quality deterioration in the Nerus River, Kuala Terengganu Malaysia. Desalination and Water Treatment 112: 334–343.

American Public Health Association (APHA). (2012). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 20th ed. Washington, DC: American Works Association, Water Environment Federation.

Dey S, Botta S, Kallam R, Angadala R and Andugala J. (2021). Seasonal variation in water quality parameters of Gudlavalleru engineering college pond. Current Research in Green and Sustainable Chemistry 4: 100058.

Fatema K, Omar W M W and Isa M M. (2016). Effects of tidal events on the water quality in The Merbok estuary, Kedah, Malaysia. Journal of Environmental Science and Natural Resources 8(2): 15–19.

Gasim M B, Khalid N A and Muhamad H. (2015). The influence of tidal activities on water quality of Paka River Terengganu, Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences 19(5): 979–990.

Hairoma N, Toriman M E and Barzani M G. (2016). Trend of six physiochemical water quality parameters between 2012 and 2015 of the Marang River, Terengganu, Malaysia. Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment 7(3): 262–267.

Jabatan Alam Sekitar (JAS). (2008). Laporan kualiti alam. Kuala Lumpur: Jabatan Alam Sekitar.

Kasan N A. (2006). Kualiti air sungai berdasarkan analisis kimia. Johor Bahru: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

Kitsiou D and Karydis M. (2011). Coastal marine eutrophication assessment: A review on data analysis. Environment International 37(4): 778-801.

Kumar P, Tsujimura M, Nakano T and Minoru T. (2012). The effect of tidal fluctuation on ground water quality in coastal aquifer of Saijo plain, Ehime Prefecture, Japan. Desalination 286: 166–175.

Kurup B M and Harikrishnan M. (2020). Reviving the Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) fishery in Vembanad Lake, India. NAGA, The ICLARM Quarterly 23(2): 1–6.

Ma’arof H and Hua A K. (2015). Kualiti air Sungai UTM: Satu tinjauan awal berpandukan enam parameter Indeks Kualiti Air. Geografia –Malaysian Journal of Society and Space 11(1): 107–115.

Nalado A M, Kamarudin M K A, Wahab N A, Rosli M H and Saudi A S M. (2018). Assessment of individual water quality index parameter in Terengganu River, Malaysia. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences 9(2S): 430.

O’Brien, T. (1995). Assessment of the impact of salinity od saline drainage on key fish species. In Banens R J and Lechane R. (eds.), Riverine environment research forum. Canberra: Murray-Darling Basin Commission, 43–46.

Rauf H N. (2010). Assesment on quantity and quality of stormwater runoff for urban drainage system and detention pond facilities. Tronoh: University Teknologi Petronas.

Suratman S, Hussein A N A R, Mohd Tahir N, Latif M T, Mostapa R and Weston K. (2016). Seasonal and spatial variability of selected surface water quality parameters in Setiu Wetland, Terengganu, Malaysia. Sains Malaysiana 45(4): 551–558.

Suratman S, Mohd Sailan M I, Hee Y Y, Bedurud E A and Latif M T. (2015). A preliminary study of water quality index in Terengganu River Basin, Malaysia. Sains Malaysiana 44(1): 67–73.

Uddin M N, Alam M S, Mobin M N, and Miah, M. A. (2015). An assessment of the river water quality parameters: A case of Jamuna River. Journal of Environmental Science and Natural Resources 7(1): 249–256.

Vasistha P and Ganguly R. (2020). Water quality assessment of natural lakes and its importance: An overview. Materials Today: Proceedings 32: 544–552.

Xie B D. (2004). Impact of the intensive shirmp farming on the water quality of the adjacent coastal creeks from Eastern China. Marine Pollution Buletin, 48(5-6): 543–553.

Zafar M A, Haque M M, Aziz M S B and Alam M M. (2016). Study on water and soil quality parameters of shrimp and prawn farming in the southwest region of Bangladesh. Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University 13(1): 153–160.

Zaideen M I M, Suratman S and Mohd Tahir N. (2017). The evaluation of spatial variation of water quality in Setiu River basin, Terengganu. Sains Malaysiana 46(9): 1513–1520.