Digestibility, Growth Performance, Body Measurement and Hormone of Sheep Fed with Different Levels of Brachiaria decumbens Diets
Main Article Content
Limited data are available regarding the effects of Brachiaria decumbens on sheep’s growth performance at different times. Therefore, this current study focused on sheep’s nutrient apparent digestibility, feed efficiency, body index, and growth hormone when they are fed with low and high levels of B. decumbens diets. A total of 30 six-month- old male Dorper cross sheep were divided randomly into three treatment groups with 10 sheep per treatment. Treatment 1 (control) sheep were fed with Pennisetum purpureum and pellets as the basal diet, whereas Treatment 2 and 3 sheep were fed with feed mixed with low (10%) and high (60%) levels of B. decumbens, respectively. The study was conducted in two phases consisting of short-term feeding (seven days) and long-term feeding (90 days). Throughout the experiment, daily fecal voided were collected in the morning for seven days continuous before the end of each feeding phases for the determination of nutrient apparent digestibility. The amount of feed offered and refusals plus body weight gain were recorded daily to determine the feed efficiency (FE). Besides, the body measurements of each sheep from every treatment were measured weekly and blood samples were collected for the analysis of growth hormone (GH) concentration. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in the nutrient apparent digestibility, growth performance, body measurement, and GH concentration among treatment sheep throughout the study period. Treatment 3 sheep fed with 60% of B. decumbens diet revealed the lowest dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) digestibility during the long-term feeding. Likewise, Treatment 3 (T3) sheep had the lowest total bodyweight gain, average daily gain, total feed intake, and daily feed intake among treatment sheep. The heart girth index (HGI) of T3 sheep was also significantly lower during the short-term feeding. Moreover, the GH concentration of T3 sheep was significantly lower as compared to the control that decreases steadily throughout the study period. In conclusion, high levels of B. decumbens showed the most significant results out of all three treatments indicating the presence of saponins, which produce negative effects on the sheep’s overall performance.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Aazami M H, Tahmasbi A M, Ghaffari M H, Naserian A A, Valizadeh R and Ghaffari A H. (2013). Effects of saponins on rumen fermentation, nutrients digestibility, performance, and plasma metabolites in sheep and goat kids. Annual Research & Review in Biology 3: 596–607.
Abdel-Raheem S M and Hassan E H. (2021). Effects of dietary inclusion of Moringa oleifera leaf meal on nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, ruminal enzyme activities and growth performance of buffalo calves. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 28(8): 4430–4436. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.04.037
Abdullah A S and Rajion M A. (1997). Dietary factors affecting entero-hepatic function of ruminants in the tropics. Animal Feed Science and Technology 69(1-3): 79–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(97)81624-0
Alghirani M M, Chung E L T, Sabri D S M, Tahir M N J M, Kassim N A, Kamalludin M H, Nayan N, Jesse F F A, Sazali A Q and Loh T C. (2021). Can Yucca schidigera be used to enhance the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, gut histomorphology, cecal microflora, carcass characteristic, and meat quality of commercial broilers raised under tropical conditions? Animals 11(8): 2276. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11082276
Aregheore E M. (2001). Nutritive value and utilization of three grass species by crossbred Anglo-Nubian goats in Samoa. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 14(10): 1389–1393. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2001.1389
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). (1995). Official methods of analysis. 16th ed. Washington, DC: AOAC.
Assumaidaee A J M and Mustapha N M. (2012). Toxicity of signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens): A review article. Journal of Advances in Medicine and Medical Research 2: 18–39.
Assumaidaee A A, Saad M Z, Sabri J and Noordin M M. (2010). The role of oxidative stress in Brachiaria decumbens toxicity in sheep. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science 33(1): 151–157.
Cam M A, Olfaz M and Soydan E. (2010). Body measurements reflect body weights and carcass yields in Karayaka sheep. Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 5(2): 120–127. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajava.2010.120.127
Cardona-Álvarez J, Vargas-Vilória M and Paredes-Herbach E. (2016). Clinical and histopathological study of the phototoxic dermatitis in Zebu calves in grazing of Brachiaria decumbens. Revista MVZ Cordoba 21(2): 5366–5380. https://doi.org/10.21897/rmvz.603
Cheok C Y, Salman H A K and Sulaiman R. (2014). Extraction and quantification of saponins: A review. Food Research International 59: 16–40. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2014.01.057
Chung E L T, Predith M, Nobilly F, Samsudin A A, Jesse F F A and Loh T C. (2018). Can treatment of Brachiaria decumbens (signal grass) improve its utilisation in the diet in small ruminants? A review. Tropical Animal Health and Production 50: 1727–1732. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-018-1641-4
Faccin T C, Riet-Correa F, Rodrigues F S, Santos A C, Melo G K, Silva J A, Ferreira R, Itavo C C B F and Lemos R A. (2014). Poisoning by Brachiaria brizantha in flocks of naïve and experienced sheep. Toxicon 82: 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2014.02.008
Gee J M, Wortley G M, Johnson I T, Price K R, Rutten A A, Houben G F and Penninks A H. (1996). Effects of saponins and glycoalkaloids on the permeability and viability of mammalian intestinal cells and on the integrity of tissue preparations in vitro. Toxicology in Vitro 10(2): 117–128. https://doi.org/10.1016/0887-2333(95)00113-1
Gomar M S, Driemeier D, Colodel E M and Gimeno E J. (2005). Lectin histochemistry of foam cells in tissues of cattle grazing Brachiaria spp. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A 52(1): 18–21. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0442.2004.00683.x
Granzotto F, Branco A F, dos Santos A L, Barreto J C, Teixeira S, Serrano R C, Barbosa O R, Mano D S, Ferelli F and Coneglian S M. (2011). Proteic supplements with and without sulfur sources on intake behavior of steers fed with low quality hay. Semina: Ciencias Agrarias 32(3): 1151–1162. https://doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2011v32n3p1151
Hart I C, Bines J A, Moran, S V and Ridley J L. (1978). Endocrine control of energy metabolism in the cow: comparison of the levels of hormones (prolactin, growth hormone, insulin and thyroxine) and metabolites in the plasma of high-and low-yielding cattle at various stages of lactation. Journal of Endocrinology 77(3): 333–345. https://doi.org/10.1677/joe.0.0770333
Hart I C, Chadwick P M E, James S and Simmonds A D. (1985). Effect of intravenous bovine growth hormone or human pancreatic growth hormone-releasing factor on milk production and plasma hormones and metabolites in sheep. Journal of Endocrinology 105(2): 189–196. https://doi.org/10.1677/joe.0.1050189
Hess H D, Beuret R A, Lotscher M and Hindrichsen I K. (2004). Ruminal fermentation, methanogenesis and nitrogen utilization of sheep receiving tropical grass hay-concentrate diets offered with Sapindus saponaria fruits and Cratylia argentea foliage. Journal of Animal Science 79(1): 177–189. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1357729800054643
Jaapar M S, Chung E L T, Nayan N, Kamalludin M H, Saminathan M, Muniandy K V, Hamdan M H M, Jusoh S and Jesse F F A. (2022). Effects of different levels of Brachiaria decumbens diets on in vitro gas production and ruminal fermentation. Journal of Animal Health and Production 10(2): 245–251. https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.jahp/2022/10.2.245.251
Johnson I T, Gee J M, Price K, Curl C and Fenwick G R. (1986). Influence of saponins on gut permeability and active nutrient transport in vitro. The Journal of Nutrition 116(11): 2270–2277. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/116.11.2270
Lelis D L, Rennó L N, Chizzotti M L, Pereira C E R, Silva J C P, Moreira L G T, Carvalho F B P and Chizzotti F H M. (2018). Photosensitization in naïve sheep grazing signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) under full sunlight or a silvopastoral system. Small Ruminant Research 169: 24–28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2018.08.018
Liu C, Qu Y H, Guo P T, Xu C C, Ma Y and Luo H L. (2018). Effects of dietary supplementation with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) saponins on lamb growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and plasma parameters. Animal Feed Science and Technology 236: 98–106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.12.006
Low S G. (2015). Signal grass (Bracharia decumbens) toxicity in grazing ruminants. Agriculture 5(4): 971–990. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture5040971
Mavule B S, Muchenje V, Bezuidenhout C C and Kunene N W. (2013). Morphological structure of Zulu sheep based on principal component analysis of body measurements. Small Ruminant Research 111(1–3): 23–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2012.09.008
Miles C O, Wilkins A L, Munday S C, Flayen A, Holland P T and Smith B L. (1993). Identification of insoluble salts of the beta-D-glucuronides of episarsasapogenin and epismilagenin in the bile of lambs with alveld and examination of Narthecium ossifragum, Tribulus terrestris, and Panicum miliaceum for sapogenins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 41: 914–917. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00030a015
Muniandy K V, Chung E L T, Jaapar M S, Hamdan M H M, Reduan M F H, Salleh A and Jesse F F A. (2021). The influence of feeding low and high level of Brachiaria decumbens diets on the hematology, serum biochemistry, and acute phase proteins of sheep. Tropical Animal Health and Production 53: 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11250-021-02820-1
Muniandy K V, Chung E L T, Jaapar M S, Hamdan M H M, Salleh A and Jesse F F A. (2020). Filling the gap of Brachiaria decumbens (signal grass) research on clinico- pathology and haemato-biochemistry in small ruminants: A review. Toxicon 174: 26–31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.12.158
Muniandy K V, Chung E L T, Reduan M F H, Paul B T, Jaapar M S, Hamdan M H M and Jesse F F A. (2021). Clinico-pathological responses of sheep to graded levels of Brachiaria decumbens diets. Journal of Advanced Veterinary Research 11(3): 167–173.
Potter S M, Jimenez-Flores R, Pollack J, Lone T A and Berber-Jimenez M D. (1993). Protein saponin interaction and its influence on blood lipids. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 41: 1287–1291. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00032a023
Riet-Correa B, Castro M B, Lemos R A, Riet-Correa G, Mustafa V and Riet-Correa F. (2011). Brachiaria spp. poisoning of ruminants in Brazil. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira 31(3): 183–192. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-736X2011000300001
Rosa F B, Rubin M I, Martins T B, de Lemos R A, Gomes D C, Pupin R C, Lima S C and Barros C S. (2016). Spontaneous poisoning by Brachiaria decumbens in goats. Pesquisa Veterinaria Brasileira 36(5): 389–396. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-736X2016000500006
Salako A E. (2006). Application of morphological indices in the assessment of type and function in sheep. International Journal of Morphology 24(1): 13–18. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0717-95022006000100003
Santoso B, Kilmaskossub A and Sambodo P. (2007). Effects of saponins from Biophytum petersianum Klotzsch on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen utilization in goats. Animal Feed Science and Technology 137(1-2): 58–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.10.005
Van Soest P J, Robertson J B and Lewis B A. (1991). Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science 74(10): 3583–3597. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2
Vendramini J M B, Sollenberger L E, Soares A B, Silva W L, Sanchez J M D, Valente A L, Aguiar A D and Mullenix M K. (2014). Harvest frequency affects herbage accumulation and nutritive value of brachiaria grass hybrids in Florida. Tropical Grasslands-Forrajes Tropicales 2(2): 197–206. https://doi.org/10.17138/tgft(2)197-206
Wina E, Muetzel S and Becker K. (2005). The impact of saponins or saponin-containing plant materials on ruminant production: A review. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53: 8093–8105. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf048053d
Yuliana P, Laconi E B, Wina E and Jayanegara A. (2014). Extraction of tannins and saponins from plant sources and their effects on in vitro methanogenesis and rumen fermentation. Journal of the Indonesian Tropical Animal Agriculture 39(2): 91–97. https://doi.org/10.14710/jitaa.39.2.91-97
Zheng C, Zhou J, Zeng Y and Liu T. (2021). Effects of mannan oligosaccharides on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation and hematological parameters in sheep. PeerJ 9: e11631. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11631
Zhong R Z, Yu M, Liu H W, Sun H X, Cao Y and Zhou D W. (2012). Effects of dietary Astragalus polysaccharide and Astragalus membranaceus root supplementation on growth performance, rumen fermentation, immune responses, and antioxidant status of lambs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 174(1–2): 60–67. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2012.02.013