Main Article Content
The ecosystem of Bandon Bay, in the Gulf of Thailand (GoT), has been impacted since 2007 by the continued stocking of larval blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus, also called a crab bank. In this study, the food web in the Bay was modelled using Ecopath software to compare the trophic status, interaction and energy flow among the components in the system in 2007 and 2016 (i.e., before and 10 years after the crab bank intervention). The models were based on data collected from trawling. Twenty fish and shellfish components were used in the 2007 model, while 22 were used in the 2016 model. A significant increase in biomass was found in blue swimming crab, but biomass declined for other demersal fishes, cephalopods, and Penaeid shrimps. The production/biomass ratios of most components were higher in 2016 but the consumption/biomass ratios were relatively unchanged. The ecotrophic efficiency indicated that shellfishes were more exploited than fishes. Changes in most of the ecological indices revealed higher maturity and stability after 10 years of crab bank operation. The mixed trophic impact indicated bottom-up regulation, and that the increase of blue swimming crab negatively impacted only Mantis shrimp. Overall, the results indicate positive impacts of the crab bank intervention.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Ak O, Ceylan B, Aydin I, Polat H, Küçük E, Ero?lu O and Kapiris K. (2016). Stock enhancement by hatchery-released turbot, Psetta maxima, in the southeastern Black Sea: Capture, migration, growth and diet analyses. Scientia Marina 80(2): 163–174. https://doi.org/10.3989/scimar.04324.25A
Allen K R. (1971). Relation between production and biomass. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 28: 1573–1581. https://doi.org/10.1139/f71-236
Arkonrat W, Oniam V, Hengcharoen N and Pradubtham K. (2013). Crab bank implementation: Case study of the blue swimming crab bank in Prachuap Khiri Khan Province, Thailand. Journal of Fisheries and Environment 37: 30–39.
Bell J D, Bartley D M, Lorenzen K and Loneragan N R. (2006). Restocking and stock enhancement of coastal fisheries: Potential, problems and progress. Fisheries Research 80: 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2006.03.008
Beverton R J H and Holt S J. (1957). On the dynamics of exploited fish populations. Fishery Investigations Series II, Vol. XIX. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.
Blaxter J H S. (2000). The enhancement of cod stocks. Advances in Marine Biology 38: 1–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2881(00)38002-6
Caddy J F and Defeo O. (2003). Enhancing or restoring the productivity of natural populations of shellfish and other marine invertebrate resources. Rome: FAO Fisheries Technical Paper.
Chassot E, Gascuel D and Colomb A. (2005). Impact of trophic interactions on production functions and on the ecosystem response to fishing: A simulation approach. Aquatic Living Resources 18(1): 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1051/alr:2005001
Christensen V, Walters C J, Pauly D and Forrest R. (2008). Ecopath with Ecosim Version 6: User guide. Vancouver: Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia.
Christensen V, Walters C J and Pauly D. (2005). Ecopath with Ecosim Version 5: Help System. Vancouver, Canada: Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia.
Colléter M, Valls A, Guitton J, Gascuel D, Pauly D and Christensen V. (2015). Global overview of the applications of the Ecopath with Ecosim modeling approach using the EcoBase models repository. Ecological Modelling 302: 42–53. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2015.01.025
Duan L J, Li S Y, Liu Y, Jiang T and Failler P. (2009). A trophic model of the Pearl River Delta coastal ecosystem. Ocean and Coastal Management 52: 359–367. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2009.04.005
Duldic J, Kraljevic M, Grbec B and Pallaoro A. (1997). Composition and temporal fluctuations of inshore juvenile fish populations in the Kornati Archipelago, eastern middle Adriatic. Marine Biology 129: 267–277. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002270050167
Dyer L A and Letourneau D K. (2003). Top-down and bottom-up diversity cascades in detrital vs living food webs. Ecology Letters 6: 60–68. https://doi.org/10.1046/ j.1461-0248.2003.00398.x
Fayram A H, Hansen M J and Timothy J E. (2006). Characterizing changes in the maturity of lakes resulting from supplementation of walleye populations. Ecological Modelling 197: 103–115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2006.02.038
Heymans J J, Coll M, Link J S, Mackinson S, Steenbeek J, Walters C and Christensen V. (2016). Best practice in Ecopath with Ecosim food-web models for ecosystem-based management. Ecological Modelling 331: 173–184.
Jarernpornnipat A, Pedersen O, Jensen K R, Boromthanarat S, Vongvisessomjai S and Choncheanchob P. (2003). Sustainable management of shellfish resources in Bandon Bay, Gulf of Thailand. Journal of Coastal Conservation 9: 135–146. https://doi.org/10.1652/1400-0350(2003)009[0135:SMOSRI]2.0.CO;2
Jutagate T and Sawusdee A. (2022). Catch composition and risk assessment of two fishing gears used in small-scale fisheries of Bandon Bay, the Gulf of Thailand. PeerJ 10: e13878. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.13878
Khan M F, Preetha P and Sharma A P. (2015). Modelling the food web for assessment of the impact of stock supplementation in a reservoir ecosystem in India. Fisheries Management and Ecology 22: 359–370. https://doi.org/10.1111/fme.12134
Koolkalya S, Sawusdee A and Jutagate T. (2015). Chronicle of Thai marine fisheries in the Gulf of Thailand (1984–2009): Variations, trends and patterns. Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences 44: 1302–1309.
Kunsook C, Gajaseni N and Paphavasit N. (2014). A stock assessment of the blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus (linnaeus, 1758) for sustainable management in Kung Krabaen Bay, Gulf of Thailand. Tropical Life Sciences Research 25: 41–59.
Lursinsap A. (1982). Primary production, potential yield and chlorophyll analysis in the southern coast of the Gulf of Thailand. Thailand: Marine Fishery Environment Group, Marine Fisheries Development Center.
Lymer D, Funge-smith S, Khemakorn P, Naruepon S and Ubolratana S. (2008). A review and synthesis of capture fisheries data in Thailand: Large versus small-scale fisheries. Bangkok, Thailand: FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.
Molony B W, Lenanton R, Jackson G and Norris J. (2003). Stock enhancement as a fisheries management tool. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 13: 409–432. https://doi. org/10.1007/s11160-004-1886-z
Nitiratsuwan T, Panwanitdumrong K and Ngampongsai C. (2014). Increasing population of blue swimming crab (Portunnus pelagicus Linnaeus, 1758) through stock enhancement: A case study in Boonkong Bay, Sikao District, Trang Province, Thailand. Kasetsart University Fishery Research Bulletin 38: 17–26.
Niumnuch N and Purisumpun R. (2011). Supply chain of aquatic animals from Ao Bandon (Bandon Bay): Case study of blue crab, black crab and mangrove crab. Bangkok: The Thailand Research Fund, 1–93.
Odum E P. (1969). The strategy of ecosystem development. Science 104: 262–270. https:// doi.org/10.1126/science.164.3877.262
Palomares M L and Pauly D. (1989). A multiple regression model for predicting the food consumption of marine fish populations. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 40: 259–273. https://doi.org/10.1071/MF9890259
Panikkar P and Khan M F. (2008). Comparative mass balanced trophic models to assess the impact of environmental management measures in a tropical reservoir ecosystem. Ecological Modelling 212: 280–291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. ecolmodel.2007.10.029
Polis G A, Sears A L W, Huxel GR, Strong D R and Maron J. (2000). When is a trophic cascade a trophic cascade? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15: 473–475. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-5347(00)01971-6
Polovina J J. (1984). An overview of the ECOPATH model. Fishbyte 2: 5–7.
Premcharoen S. (2012). Ecopath Model of the Mae Klong Estuary, Inner Gulf of Thailand. In: G H Kruse, H I Browman, K L Cochrane, D Evans, G S Jamieson, P A Livingston, D Woodby and C I Zhang (eds.). Global progress in ecosystem-based fisheries management. Alaska Sea Grant, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 1–27. https://doi. org/10.4027/gpebfm.2012.01
Satumanatpan S and Pollnac R. (2017). Factors influencing the well-being of small-scale fishers in the Gulf of Thailand. Ocean and Coastal Management 142: 37–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2017.03.023
Sawusdee A. (2010). Fishing status and management proposal in Bandon Bay, Suratthani Province, Thailand. Walailak Journal of Science and Technology 7: 89–101.
Sparre P and Venema S C. (1992). Introduction to tropical fish stock assessment. Part 1 Manual. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Supongpan M, Poonsawat R, and Christensen V. (2005a). Trophic levels of multi-species in the Gulf of Thailand. Report for the project “Ecosystems, societies, consilience, precautionary principle: Development of an assessment method of the societal cost for best fishing practices and efficient public policies”. Bangkok: Department of Fisheries, 1–18.
_______. (2005b). Introducing ecosystem-based management in the Gulf of Thailand. Report for the project “Ecosystems, societies, consilience, precautionary principle: Development of an assessment method of the societal cost for best fishing practices and efficient public policies”. Bangkok: Department of Fisheries, 1–50.
Sawusdee A, Jutagate T, Thappanand-Chaidee T, Thongkhoa S and Chotipuntu P. (2009). Fishes in the Pak Panang River and Bay in relation to the anti-salt dam operation, Part II: Food web models. Kasetsart Journal Natural Science 43: 107–119.
Thiammueang D, Chuenpagdee R and Juntarashote K. (2012). The “crab bank” project: Lessons from the voluntary fishery conservation initiative in Phetchaburi Province, Thailand. Kasetsart Journal Natural Science 46: 427–439.
Vibunpant S, Khongchai N, Send-eid J, Eiamsa-ard M and Supongpan M. (2003). Trophic model of the coastal fisheries ecosystem in the Gulf of Thailand. In: G Silvestre, L Garces, I Stobutzki, M Ahmed, R A Valmonte-Santos, C Luna, L Lachica-Alino, P Munro, V Christensen and D Pauly (eds.). Assessment, management and future directions for coastal fisheries in Asian countries. WorldFish Center Conference Proceedings, 365–386.
Wattayakorn G, Aksornkoae S, Tingsabadh C, Sathirathai S, Piumsomboon A and Praphavasit N. (1999). Economic evaluation and biogeochemical modeling of Bandon Bay, Surat Thani, Thailand. Bangkok: Thailand Core Research Sit.
Webber M, Persad G, Harris N, Wilmot I and Webber D. (2015). An ecological assessment of Foul and Folly Bays, Morant wetlands area, Jamaica using Ecopath with Ecosim. Ocean and Coastal Management 105: 127–137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. ocecoaman.2015.01.006